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Evolution of Enterprise Architecture Models

Enterprise Architecture is a discipline that has been strong in the United States of America since the early 80s, and which has developed through different frameworks and gained momentum gradually ever since...


The U.S. Department of Defence developed several models based on the older TAFIM (Technical Architectural Framework for Information Management) The TAFIM reference model was developed by the Defence Information Systems Agency (DISA) to guide the evolution of Department of Defence (DoD) systems, including sustaining base, strategic, and tactical systems, as well as interfaces to weapon systems. Application of the TAFIM reference model was required on most DoD systems. The latest version of TAFIM, Version 2.0, was published in 1994. DoD organizations and contractors applied this set of guidelines to information systems.

TAFIM was influenced by POSIX. POSIX or "Portable Operating System Interface" is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API), along with shell and utilities interfaces for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system, although the standard can apply to any operating system. Originally, the name stood for IEEE Std 1003.1-1988, which, as the name suggests, was released in 1988. The family of POSIX standards is formally designated as IEEE 1003 and the international standard name is ISO/IEC 9945. The standards emerged from a project that began near 1985. Formerly known as IEEE-IX, the term POSIX was suggested by Richard Stallman in response to an IEEE request for a memorable name.

Other mainstream Architecture Frameworks that were influenced by the TAFIM model were: the JTA (Joint Technical Architecture, also from the U.S. Dept. of Defence), the DoD TRM (Department of Defence Technical Reference Model), the C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance).

On the commercial sector several well known architecture frameworks were developed since the early 80s, these are: the Zachman framework, TOGAF, the FEAF, the TEAF, the EAP and the TISAP amongst the most well known.

In the UK, the Ministry of Defence developed the MoDAF (Ministry of Defence Architectural Framework) which defines a standardised way of conducting Enterprise Architecture and provides a means to model, understand, analyze and specify Capabilities, Systems, Systems of Systems, and Business Processes. The purpose of MODAF is to provide a rigorous systems of systems definition when procuring and integrating defence systems. As of 10th April 2007, MODAF version 1.1 was released.

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